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How do you effectively use over-the-counter rapid antigen tests that can help slow the spread of COVID-19?

A viral load that’s too low to be detected by fast antigen checks is nearly certainly too low to be transmissible. But it surely’s vital to not let your guard down utterly.

Fast antigen checks have an enormous benefit over lab-based PCR testing by way of velocity and comfort. Picture credit score: Wikipedia

The rise of the extremely transmissible delta variant across the U.S. has elevated demand for fast antigen COVID-19 tests that may be bought from a pharmacy with no prescription, used at dwelling, faculty or work and that give leads to 15 minutes.

On Sept. 9, 2021, the White Home introduced a number of initiatives to enhance entry to fast antigen checks: It should use the Protection Manufacturing Act to spice up the manufacturing of checks, require retailers to promote fast checks at price, distribute free fast checks to neighborhood well being facilities and meals banks and increase free testing in pharmacies.

Fast antigen testing makes it a lot simpler to get examined for COVID-19 , which helps detect infectious instances earlier than they unfold. However many individuals are nonetheless uncertain of how finest to make use of these checks and whether or not they’re correct sufficient to be helpful.

There are a number of FDA-approved fast checks in the marketplace together with Abbott BinaxNow, Ellume and Quidel QuickVue. These price as little as $7-12 every and can be utilized to check adults and kids aged 2 and up, no matter whether or not they have signs.

Fast antigen checks have an enormous benefit over lab-based PCR testing by way of velocity and comfort. Getting leads to 15 minutes relatively than ready a day or extra for PCR check outcomes means it’s attainable to establish COVID-19 instances straight away and take precautions to stop transmission. Having fast testing obtainable over-the-counter implies that much more folks will get examined for the reason that check is straightforward to carry out and much more handy than PCR testing. So fast checks can catch much more COVID-19 instances total than relying solely on PCR testing.

As a health economist who research public well being coverage to fight infectious illness epidemics, I do know that making COVID-19 testing accessible, correct and quick is important to slowing transmission of the virus and serving to everybody resume regular actions safely.

How correct are fast antigen checks?

Two sorts of fast checks are used for detecting an lively COVID-19 an infection: fast antigen checks that detect viral proteins utilizing a paper strip and fast molecular checks – together with PCR – that detect viral genetic materials utilizing a medical system.

It’s vital to keep in mind that fast antigen checks serve a distinct function than PCR testing, which is taken into account the gold normal regardless that it isn’t 100 % correct. Fast checks are designed to establish instances with a excessive sufficient viral load within the nasal passage to be transmissible – to not diagnose all COVID-19 instances. The Abbott BinaxNOW fast antigen check might solely detect 85 % of the constructive instances detected by PCR checks. However the bottom line is that revealed research discovered that they detect over 93 % of instances that pose a transmission danger, which is what issues most for getting the pandemic underneath management. Ellume appropriately identifies 95 % of all constructive instances, and Quidel QuickVue precisely identifies 85 %. All three checks appropriately establish upwards of 97 % of all adverse instances, no matter signs.

How ought to fast checks be used?

Fast antigen testing can be utilized in 3 ways to gradual transmission. First, folks can carry out a fast check when there’s a suspected or recognized COVID-19 publicity. Second, fast testing can present an additional precaution earlier than any exercise with a better danger of transmission, equivalent to gatherings or journey. Third, it’s additionally attainable to check frequently – weekly, as an example, if sufficient checks can be found – to catch instances that in any other case would possibly go undetected.

It’s vital to have a plan for what to do primarily based on the check outcomes. When you get a constructive consequence, instantly take precautions to gradual transmission equivalent to self-isolating, letting shut contacts know in regards to the check consequence and reporting the case to well being authorities. Lower than three % of adverse instances obtain false positives, however a second fast check the next day or a PCR check can present additional affirmation if wanted.

When you get a adverse consequence from a fast check, it means you might be at the moment most unlikely to be infectious. A viral load that’s too low to be detected by fast antigen checks is nearly certainly too low to be transmissible. But it surely’s vital to not let your guard down utterly. The checks don’t detect 100 % of infectious instances, so it’s attainable for a small quantity to evade detection or for some instances to turn out to be infectious inside hours after the check. For that reason, it might be a good suggestion to keep up different precautions. And, when you’ve got signs or a recognized publicity, it’s a good suggestion to do a follow-up fast antigen or PCR check simply in case the primary check was a false adverse.

Consider the fast antigen check as a snapshot in time: A adverse check doesn’t essentially imply you don’t have COVID-19 . COVID-19 is most transmissible when the viral load peaks, which is estimated to be inside every week after an infection. Those that are contaminated however who take a fast check earlier than or after the viral load peak will get a adverse fast check consequence – that means that regardless that they’re contaminated, they aren’t at the moment infectious. One method to scale back the danger of false negatives is with “serial testing,” the place a second fast check is carried out 24-36 hours later to assist catch any infectious instances that have been missed with the primary check.

Will the brand new initiatives be sufficient?

The White Home initiatives to extend entry to fast testing are a important step in direction of curbing case numbers. However one free check per particular person isn’t adequate to assist folks resume regular actions safely. Authorizing extra cheap fast checks by the Meals and Drug Administration would additional increase provide and scale back costs.

Making the COVID-19 vaccine free and simply accessible introduced instances down rapidly within the spring of 2021. Placing frequent fast testing inside attain for all might do the identical now.

Zoë McLaren, Affiliate Professor of Public Coverage, College of Maryland, Baltimore County

This text is republished from The Dialog underneath a Artistic Commons license. Learn the unique article.

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